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High Heel Glossary


Shoe and High Heel Glossary - A bis Z

Shoe and High Heel Glossary - A bis Z


AMT - advanced manufacturing technology - Integrated use of CAD/CAM and robotics to produce goods more cheaply and efficiently.

acrylonitrile - a tough rigid plastic. Used for making plastic heels.

albert - a men's slipper style with a tongue like extension of the upper over the instep.

alcohol - solvent used for cleaning. Flammable and poisonous.

aniline leather - leather finished with an aniline dye, which gives a natural look.  

antique finish - upper finished to give an impression of age by overspraying selected areas with a darker, contrasting finish.

anti-static - shoe with metal plug in sole to ensure static electricity is safely earthed to avoid sparks in areas where flammable gases are present or sudden electrical discharge could cause damage.  

apres ski - shoes or other articles of apparel designed for wear after ski-ing.  

apron front - vamp made up of flat apron laid over side of forepart.  

arch - part of plantar that does not touch the ground. Most commonly used of metatarsal arch.

arch support - area of insole built up and strengthened to support metatarsal arch, or similar support which can be inserted in the shoe separately.

aromatlc amines - a series of compounds that can be liberated from azo dyestuffs and have similar carcinogenic physiologic properties.

azo dyestuffs - a series of brightly coloured compounds with the general structure Ar-N-N-Ar which are banned in a number of countries due to their carcinogenic physiological properties.


backing, or backer - fabric laminated to a weak material to give it strength and to help it stand up.

bagged top - a method of binding the top line of an upper so that no stitches can be seen, giving a very soft feel and look.

ball - the swelling at the inner side of the foot where the big toe joins the head of the first metatarsal bone. The main line of flexing of the foot, and hence of the shoe occurs across this point, which is  therefore important in shoe fitting. This part of the foot is sometimes referred to as the joint.

ballerina - flat heeled (not more than one lift) pump designed to resemble ballet shoe.

ballet shoe - a very light type of heelless shoe with upper of satin or other fabric, designed for ballet dancing. Held on the foot by ribbons, arising from the quarters on each side, tied over the instep. Made in two types, soft toe for general ballet dance training and hard toe (blocked toe) for use, where the routine includes dancing on points (that is, on the tip of the big toe).

bar shoe - any shoe held on the foot by bars across the instep. Any number of bars can be used, and they can be arranged in various ways e.g. T Bars.

bark tanned - leather vegetable tanned by the tannins contained in the bark of trees, the leather in process is in contact with the raw bark.

baseline - last designed with standard bottom measurements to facilitate the design and manufacture of components to fit.

beading - a tubular decoration, usually between the upper and the sole, but sometimes on the upper.

beeswax - prepared from the honey-comb. An ingredient of some shoe polishes. Also used in hand finishing leather soles.

bellows tongue - tongue in a lace up shoe which is joined to the upper at the sides as well as the bottom.

bend - sole leather made from the rear portion of a heavy cattle hide divided along the line of the backbone, after removal of the bellies and shoulder.

benzene-benzol - solvent obtained from coal tar. Good solvent for grease and rubber. Used for making rubber solution and has been used for cleaning shoe uppers. Toxic and highly flammable. Ventilation in a working area vitally important. See benzine.

benzine - a solvent derived from mineral oil refining. Used for cleaning purposes and rubber solution. Less toxic than benzene but highly flammable. Ventilation of working area very important.

bespoke - footwear made to measure to the highest specifications. In most cases a last is made especially to fit the wearer's foot, and stored by the bespoke maker.

BFA - British Footwear Association.

binding - tape or leather strip covering raw edges of leather round top line to hold outer and lining together and give a neat, durable finish.

blake sewn - a method of shoe construction in which the sole is attached to the upper and insole by a single chain-stitched seam directly through the insole inside the shoe to the outsole. No welt is used.

BLC - British Leather Confederation.

blind eyelets - eyelets inserted and clenched on the lining, only small punched holes being visible on the tabs.

block co-polymer - chemical compound of two polymers believed to be disposed in the molecule as individual molecular blocks, each responding differently to physical changes, giving the compound different qualities, for example thermoplasticity when heated, which the co-polymer would not otherwise have.

boarding - process of stamping a surface finish on leather to give the impression of a different grain to the natural one. Commonly used on sides and splits to make them resemble calf or even kid.

bones of the foot - it is interesting though not essential for the shoe fitter to study the anatomy of the foot in detail. It is more instructive for him (or her) to understand how the bones move in relation to each other and the differing degrees of restricted movement between them. In a men's shoe with rather high cut quarters it is sometimes possible for the topline to press painfully on the outer ankle bones when the leg i.e. angled outwardly sideways with respect to the foot.

bootee - a women's style, having an upper extending slightly above the ankle. Designed for fashion and comfort, with upper of soft, flexible material. A similar style, with center zip fastener, is popular for men's warm lined slippers.

box calf - full chrome tanned calf leather, in the UK this is black, other colours being described as willow calf.

Brannock device - a foot-measuring device having a slide piece adjustable to show the length of the foot and another slide piece which can be moved to show the distance of the ball of the foot from the heel. This measurement is used in conjunction with the foot length measurement to give the shoe size required. The device also indicates appropriate widths. The Brannock system is widely used in America, where it originated.

BRMA - British Rubber Manufacturers' Association.

brogue shoe - a closed front tie shoe, the upper comprising several parts each punched and serrated (gimped) along the margins, together with a punched and gimped wing cap. A brogue effect is often achieved in other styles of shoe by punching and gimping.

brushed pigskin - pigskin leather having the display surface finished with a velvet- like nap.

BSAIF - British Sports and Allied Industries Federation.

BSI - British Standards Institution. BTBS - Boot Trade Benevolent Society.

built heel - heel built of layers, or lifts of leather or leatherboard, the layers and bonding lines showing contrasts of tone or colour which add to fashion interest.

bunlon - an inflammation of the tissues over a joint, caused by pressure and/or friction. It most commonly develops over the protruberant metatarso-phalangeal joint of the big toe in cases of hallux valgus.

byte - a sequence of bits, which might for example be eight, proceed by a computer or held in a computer memory as a unit. It is the unit which designates the memory size. A 24k computer, for example, would have a memory of approximately 24,000 bytes.


CAD - Computer Aided Design - a shoe design is prepared on the screen of a computer it is then put into the computer memory. It can then be modified and sectional patterns produced and all grading completed. Patterns can then be cut by laser water jet or mechanical cutter on instructions from the computer. Some systems can show 3D pictures of the designs.

calf - leather made from the skin of a young or immature bovine animal, the skin not exceeding a certain weight. In the UK this is 16kg green weight. The weight classification differs in various countries. Skins over 7kg of immature milk-fed animals are sometimes described as veals.

calf side - calf skin split down the line of the backbone. Calf side is often a euphemism for skin of an older animal dressed to resemble calf leather.

Californian - a method of making where the upper and platform cover is sewn to an insock. The last is then forced in. The platform is then attached and the cover lasted over before the sole is attached. used for casual and women's and children's sandals. It is a variant of the sliplasting construction.

CAM - Computer Aided Manufacture - The data in the computer from CAD can be used to control cutting tools, presses, lasers, water jet, or mechanical cutters and an increasing range of other machines: - M.C. milling machines for moulds and lasts, sewing machines, roughing and the new generation of robots.

cap and counter - upper design having a separate toe-cap and stiffener cover, usually in contrasting colours. See spectator and co-respondent.

cape - a very soft leather much used for comfort shoes. It is also used for gloves, and is often referred to as glove leather.

carnauba - a hard wax coating from the leaves of certain Brazilian palm trees. A high-cost material used as a component of high-grade shoe polishes and creams enabling them to produce a lasting high gloss on leather.

CEC - Confederation Europene des Chaussures. The confederation of European footwear manufacturers federations. They seek to represent the views of the shoe industry to the European parliament, and to promote the improvement of the industry in Europe.

cellulose board - top quality insole material made from alpha cellulose of the highest quality with a polymeric binder. Typical brand names are Bontex and Texon. (The word Texon now applies to all BUSM insole materials.)

CE Mark - the mark of conformity used to demonstrate compliance with a number of European Directives (e.g. those covering toys, PPE, etc.)

cement lasted - method of lasting where the forepart upper is attached to the insole with hot adhesive instead of tacks.

cemented construction - bonding the sole of the upper by means of a cement, usually heat and pressure activated. This produces a shoe which is light, flexible and neat, as well as being cheaper to produce than more traditional methods. It is much used for light dress shoes and unit soles. If the bonding is not correctly carried out the sole will come away from the upper.

CFHR - Children's Foot Health Register.

CFI - Clothing and Footwear Institute. The professional organisation of the clothing and footwear industries for individuals. It organizes conferences and local branch meetings, publishes a magazine and sets examinations, which if passed lead to associateship (ACFI), the professional qualification of the industry. ACFI is awarded at age 24 following 2 years in a position of responsibility, fellowship (FCFI) is awarded for a special contribution to the industry or in recognition of a thesis.

chappal, or chuplee - a type of sandal, originating in India. The vamp consists of two wide straps, one on each side of the forepart, crossing over and extending round the heel, and adjustable for size by a buckle near the back. A looped strap at each side of the heel holds the straps in position relative to the sole. Also used of a sandal held on the foot by a toe-post and loop.

chevette - leather made from thin goat- skin. Used for gloves.

Children's Foot Health Register - in an effort to improve the foot health of the children of this country, the Children's Foot Health Register has been compiled, listing retailers in geographical locations who have undertaken to have shoes in stock in a choice of four width fittings in full and half sizes, and who have staff trained to measure the feet and width and fit correctly at the time of sale. The minimum requirements are that footwear for children is available in the shop in whole and half sizes from infants size 3 through to girl's and boy's size 5 in four width fittings. In addition members are expected to carry a minimum stock of sandals at the start of the summer season in full and half-sizes and four width fittings. The Children's Foot Health Register is revised annually. Details from the Administrator, Children's Foot Health Register, 84-88 Great Eastern Street, London EC2A 3ED.

chiropody - remedial care of the foot, especially dealing with corns, toe nail disorders and toe displacements (pronounce ky-rop-ody).

Chiropodist - one who practices chiropody.

chrome tanned - leather tanned solely with salts of chromium.

chukka boot - men's low boot with capless vamp and high cut quarters, two-hole lace, used for casual riding and leisure wear. Often in soft suede, designed for comfort.

Clarino - a poromeric shoe upper material made by Kuraray Co., Japan and distributed in the UK by BUSM Co. It has a synthetic fibre base layer, a microcellular polyurethane layer and a finish coat simulating the grain of leather.

claw foot - see pes cavua.

clicking - traditional name of the cutting out by hand knife of the upper components of a shoe. As most uppers are now cut by strip steel dies in a press the term cutting is more commonly used.

clog - originally used for a boot or a shoe with wooden sole, or in some cases, entirely of wood. Recently plastic soles have been introduced, either rigid synthetic imitations of wood or flexible.

closed front - the front of an oxford shoe or other men's shoe style having the eyelet tabs stitched under the vamp (compare derby, oxford.)

closing - stitching together the cut components of the outside and lining of a shoe upper.

coated fabrics - fabrics transfer-coated with PU or PVC.

colour fastness - resistance of the colour of materials to the different agencies to which these materials may be exposed during manufacture and their subsequent use.

Computer Integrated Manufacture - an integrated approach to manufacturing based on the widespread use of computer information and technology.

construction - the basic method of making the shoe. In most cases this applies to the way the sole is attached to the upper.

consumer complaints - a product that is returned to the retailer as a result of its performance galling below the customers expectations.

co-polymer - a chemical compound formed by the polymerization of two different monomers.

chiropody - remedial care of the foot, especially dealing with corns, toe nail disorders and toe displacements (pronounce ky-rop-ody).

Chiropodist - one who practices chiropody.

chrome tanned - leather tanned solely with salts of chromium.

chukka boot - men's low boot with capless vamp and high cut quarters, two-hole lace, used for casual riding and leisure wear. Often in soft suede, designed for comfort.

cordovan - a leather used for some men's high-grade shoe uppers, tanned from the shell of a horse butt, a kidney shaped very compact layer isolated by removing the skin layer above and the flesh layer below.

cordwalner - an old word for a shoe-maker. One who hand-made shoes in Cordovan leather. Now means any shoemaker.

co-respondent - men's cap and counter shoe with cap and counter in contrasting colour to remainder of shoe.

Corfam - synthetic upper material which reproduces most of the properties of leather.

Clarino - a poromeric shoe upper material made by Kuraray Co., Japan and distributed in the UK by BUSM Co. It has a synthetic fibre base layer, a microcellular polyurethane layer and a finish coat simulating the grain of leather.

claw foot - see pes cavua.

clicking - traditional name of the cutting out by hand knife of the upper components of a shoe. As most uppers are now cut by strip steel dies in a press the term cutting is more commonly used.

clog - originally used for a boot or a shoe with wooden sole, or in some cases, entirely of wood. Recently plastic soles have been introduced, either rigid synthetic imitations of wood or flexible.

closed front - the front of an oxford shoe or other men's shoe style having the eyelet tabs stitched under the vamp (compare derby, oxford.)

closing - stitching together the cut components of the outside and lining of a shoe upper.

coated fabrics - fabrics transfer-coated with PU or PVC.

colour fastness - resistance of the colour of materials to the different agencies to which these materials may be exposed during manufacture and their subsequent use.

Computer Integrated Manufacture - an integrated approach to manufacturing based on the widespread use of computer information and technology.

construction - the basic method of making the shoe. In most cases this applies to the way the sole is attached to the upper.

consumer complaints - a product that is returned to the retailer as a result of its performance galling below the customers expectations.

co-polymer - a chemical compound formed by the polymerization of two different monomers.

cordovan - a leather used for some men's high-grade shoe uppers, tanned from the shell of a horse butt, a kidney shaped very compact layer isolated by removing the skin layer above and the flesh layer below.

cordwalner - an old word for a shoe-maker. One who hand-made shoes in Cordovan leather. Now means any shoemaker.

co-respondent - men's cap and counter shoe with cap and counter in contrasting colour to remainder of shoe.

Corfam - synthetic upper material which reproduces most of the properties of leather.

corrected grain leather - leather from which the grain layer has been partially removed by buffing and upon which a new surface has been built up by various finishes.

COSHH - Control of Substances Hazardous to Health.

counter - see: Stiffener. Also used of upper component of similar appearance covering stiffener.

counter lining - portion of lining covering counter. This should be made of a rough surfaced material to inhibit heel slip.

court shoe - woman's low cut shoe which is only held on the foot by its shape and the stiffener. Heel height at least 1 inch. Originally designed to be worn at court and for other formal occasions when little walking was needed.

crepe - natural rubber soling material made by drying latex from rubber tree. Very hard-wearing and flexible, but slips on wet surfaces, which is why a wet knife is uses to cut it. Small pieces are used in finishing room to remove marks on uppers.

crock - particles which can be removed from suede leather by dry rubbing.

cross Linking - a polymerization process in which the molecular chains produce, during development, side chains joining the principal chains together. The degree of cross linking can be closely controlled chemically. This affects physical properties, giving considerable choice, for example of tensile strength.

cuban heel - a type of heel 4-10mm high with a straight breast, little or no curvature to back and sides, tapering very slightly to a fairly broad top-piece. Usually knock-on.

curried leather - leather finished by

impregnating with oil or grease to render it waterproof. Used for agricultural and other heavy footwear worn in very wet conditions.


derby - men's boot or shoe with the eyelet tabs stitched on the outside of the vamp (see also Gibson).

diamante - imitation diamond. Available in strips set in a plastics matrix. Use for trims.

diamante patent - coloured translucent patent which allows the grain to show through giving a sparkling effect.

di-Isocyanate - one of the two essentireagents from which polyurethane made. See resln-mlx.

DIN - Deutsche Industrie Norm - German equivalent of British Standard.

direct-moulded - a construction method by which the sole, of rubber, PVC other mouldable material is moulded direct onto the upper, by vulcanisation injection moulding or reaction moulding.

Direct Vulcanized (DV) - compression or injection moulding of an unvulcanized compound directly onto the shoe bottom which forms one face of the mould.

dlscolouration - an undesired change in colour. This can be an incompatibility or instability problem with components, materials, finishes, etc., of footwear due to a variety of causes, which include light, heat, water, atmospheric pollutants and chemical additives.

DMF - i-methyl formamide - a solvent capable of holding in solution the polmerised compound as it is being converted to microcellular polyurethane in sheet form. It is miscible with water, a fact essential to this process.

d'Orsay - a variation of the court style having the sides cut away at the waist so that the shoe is held on the foot by the stiffener and the vamp only. this is not very practical, although very attractive, and the fashion is usually short lived as a result. See: half d'Orsay.

dorsiflex - a foot movement. To flex the foot upward so that the dorsum (upper surface) approaches nearer to the leg.

dresslng - application of polishes or gloss promoting materials, etc., to shoe uppers to improve the appearance.

DTI - Department of Trade and Industry.

dubbin - oily dressing for heavy duty footwear designed to keep the leather supple and waterproof. Much used by walkers and climbers, etc.


EC Directives - legislation relating to rules and regulations issued by the European Union.

eco labeling - labeling of a product which indicates that it meets agreed standards for its environmental impact during its production, distribution, sue and disposal.

EFTPOS - Electronic Fund Transfer at Point-Of-Sale. System which debits buyer's and credits seller\quote s bank account instantly transaction takes place.

elasticity - the property of a body or material by which it stretches or under- goes other deformation under stress and resumes its original form when the stress is removed. If the stress continues beyond the limit of the material the material does not fully recover the original form. Elasticity is measured by the elastic modulus which is the ratio of stress to deformation.

elastomer - material having elastic properties.

eletrostatlc precipitation - process whereby a surface is electrostatically charges and particles are drawn to it, thus being spread over it very closely and regularly. Used for making synthetic suedes and colouring components.

embosslng - a method of decorating

leather by pressing a heated die onto the surface. Used by hand on shoe uppers or leathergoods, or by machine on complete skins to give simulated impression of e.g. reptile skin.

EMAP shoe machinery show, Civitanova Marche, Italy.

Environmental Management Systems - requirements for the development, implementation and maintenance of management systems aimed at ensuring compliance with stated environment policy and objectives.

EPA - Environmental Protection Act.

EPOS - Electronic Point of Sale. Refers to systems which update stock and cash records electronically direct from data supplied from data inputted by till operation.

ergonomlcs - the study of the working environment relative to work performance. Directed to the design of machines and factors in the environment to enable the individual to work most efficiently.

ethylene-propylene rubber - a synthetic rubber made by the polymerization of approximately equal proportions of the two gases ethylene and propylene.

ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) - chemical compound with rubbery properties appropriate for soling in the blown or microcellular form. It is light weighing, its properties can be considerably modified according to the proportions of ethylene and vinyl acetate in the copolymer. Also used as the basis for adhesives.

European Norm (EN) - European Standard supplied by BSI.

exerclse sandal - sandal with single adjustable strap across forepart and a wooden or moulded plastic sole having a cup for the heel, a metatarsal arch support and a raised ridge under the phalangic arch, which forces the foot muscles to work during the action of walking

EXSL - Exhibition of Sports and Leisure. A new series of exhibitions organized by BSAIF to be held at Olympia, London to replace the international sports and leisure trade show ISLE.

eyelet - hole for lacing, but often embellished as a fashion feature.

eyelet tab - the front part of the quarters, overlaying the instep, carrying the eyelets.


Feather, feather line or edge - the boundary line around the upper where it joins the welt or the sole; the corresponding line around an insole or a last.

FEDC - Footwear Economic Development Committee.

FDF - Footwear Distributors' Federation.

flbreboard - sheet material commonly used for insoling and heel lifts made of cellulose fibre obtained from wood pulp, or from re-processed cardboard, wrapping papers, etc. The quality is closely controlled and graded according to laboratory tests. grade 1 for seat board and Grade 3 for shank board. There is no Grade 2. See also cellulose board and non-woven insole board.

FICC - footwear exhibition Elda, Spain. finishing - ironing and polishing edges and bottoms of leather soled footwear to improve both appearance and wearability. Also applied to final cleaning, polishing and checking of all footwear.

Rnite Element Analysis (FEA) - computer based technique for evaluation the stresses and strains in components under load.

Htting shoe - shoes made in more than one width in each size. the width is commonly indicated by a letter or number. Practice varies in detail but the general scheme of width markings for women's shoes made in the UK is: narrow-AA, A, B, C: medium-D, E, broad-F, G, H. Corresponding number marking for the three groups would be: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In men's shoes the UK classification of fittings is approximately:

narrow-A, B, C; medium-D, E, F; broad-G, H; and corresponding number groups, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. UK practice is usually a difference of 5mm in joint girths between consecutive whole sizes up to children's size 10, and 6.5mm difference between joint girths of sizes above 10. The classification of width measurements as narrow, medium and broad can only be an approximation. There may be differences between one manufacturer's scale of fittings and another's arising, for example, from fashion changes of forepart shape.

flash - rubber or plastic which, in a moulding operation, may exude from the mould through minute gaps at the mould parting lines, or where the feather meets the side moulds in direct-moulding. It must be trimmed off by hand or machine, which is difficult to do perfectly.

flat foot, pes planus - clinical features of this condition are a tilting inwardly of the os calcis and displacement of the head of the astragulus downwards. The result is an inward tilting of the heel, observable from the rear when the sufferer is standing. another feature is abduction of the foot, that is, displacement of the forefoot outwardly or away from the median line of the body. This is sometimes called pronation. A result of the changes described is that the inner border of the foot is lengthened. Arch supports of various kinds and the shoemaking practice of providing a built-in support by raising the inner side of the waist of the shoe have probably helped to prevent cases of weak foot or incipient flat foot from becoming worse. Chiropodists can offer diagnosis and recommendations for exercises and re-education of the sufferer's attitude in walking, which is said to be an important remedial factor. The shoe fitter clearly has a problem in providing from his stock a shoe with forepart design appropriate to accommodate even a moderately pronated foot. A wide-fitting nature form shoe and an arch support may be worthwhile lines of approach.

flesh, flesh side - the inner side of an animal skin or piece of leather; opposite to the grain, grain side, or outer side.

floppy disc - plastic disc with metallic coating which can store electronic signals. Used in computers to store data.

flow moulding - process which uses a mould cast from an original model in cold curing silicone rubber. Reproduction is achieved by pressing PVC upper material against the mould in a special press where it is subjected to high-frequency, high-voltage electric current which momentarily fuses the PVC by molecular excitation. This process enables complex designs in leather uppers to be copied in PVC very cheaply.

folding - the most usual word for an upper edge treatment where a narrow margin of the edge is folded over, skived and secured by adhesive. A few areas in the UK call this operation beading.

foot beds - an insert which is shaped or moulded to match the approximate contours of the bottom surface of the foot. Such insets are widely used in trainers and sports shoes.

Footwear Testing Center - set up as a result of the footwear code of practice the testing center acts as an arbitrator when disputes occur over faulty footwear between the customers and the retailer. Its address is 249, Rockingham Road, Kettering, Northants (01536 410000). The center is not able to deal with shoes sent in by private individuals.

force lasting - the upper is formed into a bag and the last is forced into it.

forepart - the front part of the shoe or sole, from the waist forwards.

forme - the pattern, in the flat, representing as nearly as practicable the shape of the contoured surface of the last, from which the upper component shapes are derived.

foxing - a thin strip of rubber or crepe rubber attached by cement vertically runlet; the edge of some shoes. When in crepe sometimes known as a curtain.

french binding - a method of finishing the topline by binding it with a tape of fabric or plastic material. Sometimes called galloon binding.


ghillie shoe - a tie shoe in which the lace passes through rings or loops, usually metal, stitched into the margin of the front opening, instead of through eyelets.

gibson - women's lace-up style in which the quarters are laid over the vamp and drawn together by a lace. Sometimes called; a lorne shoe it is the women's equivalent to a men's derby.

gimping - saw-toothed edge to leather resembling pinking in fabric.

girth - the measurement round the wide part of the foot, namely the ball or joint. Used in several shoe fitting systems instead of simply the width. It is superior to the width system because it is possible for two people with the same foot width to have different joint girth measurements. The width system takes no account of the 'depth', that is the thickness of the foot a the forepart. The fitter takes account of it when he sees the customer's foot and suggests an appropriate width fitting.

glace kid - upper leather made from chrome( tanned kidskin, finished with a smooth glossy surface. Also called glazed kid.

glazed goat - similar to glace kid, but from adult animal. The grain is coarser, and the leather more inclined to crease.

global resourcing - the search for shoes, closed uppers and components from overseas.

golosh - an overshoe in waterproof material from protection against rain, snow, mud, etc. Also refers to the part of a boot which covers the foot, as opposed to the leg.

grain - the pattern of pores and other surface peculiarities, characteristic of the animal concerned, visible on the outer surface of a hide or skin after the hair or wool has been removed.

grain layer - the layer of a hide or skin extending from the surface after removal of the hair or wool and epidermis down to about the level of the hair or wool roots.

grain leather - leather with a grain sufficiently pronounced to be used as a decorative feature.

grecian slipper - one with quarters and

vamp both curving downwards to overlap on both sides near the sole, leaving a V- shape cut-away appearance at the waist.

grindery - trade name for tacks, staples, rivets, stapling wire, etc., used in shoemaking.


half d'Orsay - similar to d'Orsay but only outside of court is cut out.

half-sole - sole covering the tread or forepart of the foot only. It is much cheaper to replace a worn sole with a half sole than a long sole.

hallux rigidus - a painful affliction of the big toe, with restriction of movement, the toe being held in the extended position, or sometimes slightly dorsiflexed. Very little, if any, dorsiflexion is possible. In a related condition, hallux flexus, the toe is rigidly plantar flexed.

hallux valgus - a sideways deviation of the big toe toward the other toes. It is associated with the development of a prominence on the inner side of the joint, which then develops a protective bursa. The bursa may become inflamed, resulting in a bunion. The first metatarsal head, or joint to which the shoe fitter takes the heel- to-ball measure, is much more prominent than is normal, and the forefoot is wider because of the larger than average angle between the first and second metatarsal shafts. The condition is often found in a foot with a larger than average angle between the first and second metatarsal shafts, which is an inherited characteristic. The cause of hallux valgus is not clear. It may be pointed toe shoes, shoes fitted too short or too narrow, or a combination of

any of these with a foot structure that has a predisposition, possibly hereditary, towards the abnormal. Women are sufferers much more frequently than men, perhaps by as many as ten to one. Because the foot is extraordinarily insensitive to distorting pressures of all kinds, even from child-hood, sufferers often do not seek advice until it is too late for simple remedial measures. Chiropodists have various means to prevent early cases from becoming chronic and are also able to give sound advice about the choice of footwear, as are qualified shoe fitters. It is absolutely essential, nevertheless, that the condition should be diagnosed early.

heat setting - giving an upper more permanent shape retention while it is on the last by the application of heat or steam for a short period instead of a longer period under strain.

heel attachment - by barbed nails, screws or staples. It is vital that this is correctly done, particularly in the case of high heels, otherwise the heel may come off.

heel to ball measure - the measured distance of the ball of the foot from the heel end. A shoe selected to fit the foot should have a corresponding measure from heel to widest part of the forepart. The relationship of this measure to the total foot length is the basis of the Brannock system. See Brannock device.

heel breast - the front surface of a shoe heel.

heel grip - small suede-covered pad which can be stuck to counter lining of shoe to reduce size at heel and prevent foot slipping out of shoe.

heel height - the vertical distance from the center of the top-piece where it contacts the ground to the seat of the shoe. There is, however, much difference of opinion as to how this measurement should be taken, because of differences of seat angle with the horizontal and top-piece location in a fore and aft sense. The above definition assumes that the center of the top-piece is vertically below the center of pressure of the weight-bearing protuberance of the lower surface of the heel bone. In practice the height is most commonly measured at the back of the heel, vertically upward from ground surface to seat.

heel pitch - angle between axis and heel and base line. If heel axis is not vertical damage may result.

hide - the outer covering of a mature or fully-grown animal of the larger kind, for example cattle, horse, camel, whale. In France the word is used for adult bovine animals only. In Germany, it also applies to pigs, reptiles, fishes and birds.

hollow foot - see pes cavus

house shoes - another name for slippers, used in the language of some countries in Europe where a stouter construction is

sometimes made. See Albert slipper and Grecian slipper. Some slippers are made by the moccasin construction.


ICHSLTA - International Committee of Hide, Skin and Leather Trades Association

IFRA - Independent Footwear Retailers' Association

IFSA - Instock Footwear Suppliers Association

IMBEX - Men's and Boys' Wear Exhibition, London.

Infra-red - heat radiation. Radiation in the spectrum of electromagnetic radiations of wavelengths longer than visible light and shorter than radio frequencies. Not visible to the naked eye.

injection mouldlng - a method of moulding a sole unit, for example, using PVC or other thermoplastic material, by melting the material in the heated barrel of an injection moulding machine and injecting it under pressure into the mould cavity. This is a cheap method of mass- producing shoes. The sole is flexible, waterproof long-wearing, with excellent adhesion, but tends to crack after a while.

Insock - a thin layer of materials put in to the shoe after manufacture to cover the insole.

insole - light sole conforming to the shape of the bottom of the last to which the upper and the bottom are attached to make the shoe. In most constructions, therefore, it forms the foundation of the shoe. It is made of leather, leatherboard or fibreboard, and needs to be flexible and able to absorb moisture. In many cases it is covered by an in sock after making to cover any nails, stitches, etc. which may protrude.

instep - the upper surface of the foot above the waist area.

InterCIM - SATRA's International Initiative to assist the footwear industry in the development and application of computer integrated manufacturing techniques.

iron - unit of measurement of thickness of sole leather and edges of shoes. One iron is 46th of an inch.

ionomer - a class of elastomers in which the molecular structure may be of hydrocarbon type, but containing metallic ions in addition.

ISLE - see EXSL.

ISO 9000 - international Standard for Quality Management and Quality Assurance.

IULTC - International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemists.


Jellies - footwear made entirely from PVC by the injection moulding process. Usually produced in complex open designs for casual and summer use.

Joggers - see trainers.

Jolnt - see ball. An enlarged joint is called a bunion.

Just In Time (JIT) - a method of organizing the manufacturing or business processes so that raw materials, components and sub-assemblies arrive just-in-time at the required point of manufacture. It is aimed at minimizing stocks before, during and dramatically speeding up throughout times. Teamwork and modular manufacturing systems are often employed with this approach.


laces - the length of a lace must be appropriate to the number of eyelets in the shoe for which it is intended. The table shows the usual classification.

lamlnatlon - joining the faces of sheets of materials together. This gives greater strength than each material would have on its own, and simplifies handling. Examples are laminated linings, which are cut at the same time as the outers, and brittle leathers such as snakes which are laminated to a backer to prevent splitting in lasting and wear.

last - a solid form of wood, plastic or metal on which a shoe is built, and which imparts its shape to the shoe. When the sole has been attached the last is removed, and the inside dimensions of the shoe should then conform to those of the last.

lasting tack - small tack used to secure upper to insole. Also used for temporary attachment of insole to last, in which case it must be removed before sole attachment. If this is not done customer dissatisfaction will certainly result.

lasting - the operation of stretching the upper over the last so that is conforms to the shape of the last, at the same time attaching it to the insole.

latex - the milky emulsion of rubber particles exuded from the bark of the rubber tree. It is coagulated to separate the water, leaving the natural rubber. Used for making natural crepe rubber and adhesives. When vulcanized it is the rubber widely used for soling, often in combination with synthetic rubber.

leather - hide or skin which retains its original fibrous structure but has been treated so that it will not rot even after absorbing water.

leatherboard - sheet material made by shredding pieces of scrap leather, suspending it in water together with a small percentage of rubber or synthetic binding material, depositing it on a wire mesh or similar support to agglutinate, and then drying. Used for insoles, etc.

leather, chrome tanned - leather tanned either solely with chromium salts or with chromium salts together with quite small amounts of some other tanning agent used merely to assist the chrome tanning process, and not in sufficient amount to alter the essential chrome-tanned character of the leather.

leather goods - articles from suitcases and purses to watchstraps.

leather, vegetable tanned - leather tanned exclusively with vegetable tanning agents, or with such materials together with small amounts of other agents used merely to assist the tanning process or to improve or modify the leather, and not in sufficient amounts to alter notably the essential vegetable-tanned character of the leather.

lifts - layers of leather or leatherboard composing the heel of a shoe. the lift in contact with the ground is called the top- piece and is frequently of rubber or plastic.

linlng - the inner surface of the shoe upper. Linings may be used in just the back of the shoe or as full linings covering the whole of the shoe interior.

loafers - a light-weight casual for men, without fastening. Usually with a small tongue and saddle trim.

lorne shoe - see gibson.

louis heel - a shaped heel, usually curved in at the back and sides, with a breasted forepart.


made-to-measure - nominally the same as bespoke, but is in common use to denote shoes made an a stock last which approximately corresponds to the measurements of the customer's foot.

magnetorestriction - a change in the dimensions of ferromagnetic substances (for example iron, nickel and cobalt), when they are magnetized. (See ultrasonics.)

magnetron, cavity magnetron - a thermionic valve for producing high power microwave oscillations. Used in large conveyorised machines for drying leather.

mallet toe - see hammer toe.

management information systems (MIS) - computer system for linking all departments for more efficient company management.

Maxlflt - system for assessing men's and women's' lasts.

MEK - methylethyl ketone. A powerful solvent for, among other uses, wiping the surface of PVC mouldings to remove plasticiser. As with all solvents ventilation of the working area is important.

metalllsed leather - leather given a lustre finish by the application of metallic powders or foils.

metamerism - a peculiarity of colours whereby two materials judged to be an identical colour match by one light appear markedly different by another light.

metatarsal bones - the five longest bones in the foot, extending from the toes to the cuboid and cuneiform bones of the instep.

metatarsalgla - an extremely painful condition of the forefoot, starting with a burning sensation in the fourth metatarsal head region. This develops suddenly into a severe piercing pain extending to the tips of the fourth and fifth toes. This true metatarsalgia was first described in 1876 by a Dr Morton of Philadelphia and has sometimes been referred to as Morton's neuralgia or Morton's toe. The cause is pressure on the nerves near the metatarsal heads when walking, arising from some degree of displacement of the metatarsal heads. Treatment by chiropody includes the fitting of a suitably skived felt pad behind the heads of the metatarsals affected, or the fitting of a metatarsal bar to the insole or outsole. Cases of Morton's metatarsalgia are rare. Women are affected more than men. Not all painful forefoot conditions are attributable to it.

MICAM - Modacalzatura, Bologna and Milan, Italy.

microcellular - a characteristic of elastomeric soling materials which have innumerable tiny cefls of gas through-out the structure, promoting lightness and a cushioned feeling underfoot. The cells are often too small to be discerned by the eye.

mlcron - micrometer. On millionth of a metre, or one thousandth of a millionstre. Symbol is a Greek small mu (u).

microprocessor - a microelectronic device with a memory that can be set to programme a series of, for example, mechanical movements of an arm with a grasping device to move shoe component from one machine to another. It is much simpler than a computer, differing from it in not having a central processor unit, or print-out or other peripherals.

midsoles - a half sole placed in the forepart of the shoe.

mineral tannage - tanning with salts of metals, for example chromium, aluminum, zirconium.

MIPEL - bag and leathergoods show, Milan, Italy.

MOCAP - Portuguese shoe show in Oporto.

moccasln - a shoe construction in which the upper and sole are in one piece, and the shoe is closed by stitching in the vamp, not at the back as is usual. The original Red Indian moccasin was made from heavy hide and has no outsole. These are now generally used for indoor use. For outdoor and dress wear light leathers, such as glace kid, are used and an outsole and heel are attached to the bottom. In his case the adhesion at the feather edge can be a problem. Moccasins are flexible and comfortable, but are not recommended for heavy wear. As a general rule they can be identified by the absence of an insole, which gives the shoe its flexibility, but some makers insert an insole to try to give greater strength, in which case the resulting product cannot truly be described as a moccasin.

moccasln front - vamp having an apron front which appears to have been made by the moccasin method, but is only an imitation.

MODATECC - International Fair of Technology and Footwear Fashion. Elda, Spain.

Morton's neuralgla - see metatarsalgia.

monomer - a material consisting of single molecules of a chemical compound. (See polymer).

MSRA - Multiple Shoe Retailers' Association.

Mondopoint - an intended international method of designating shoe sizes. It provides that the marking should consist of two numbers: (1) a number corresponding to the length in millimetres (measured weight-on and wearing hose) of the average foot fitted; and (2) a number corresponding to the joint width in millimetres (measured weight-on and wearing hose) of the average foot fitted. Mondopoint has been adopted by the Sritish Standards Institution and the International Standards Organisation, which have specified that the size interval should be 5 mm or 7 mm, depending on the type of footwear. For example, 5 mm would be appropriate for women's court shoes and 7mm for footwear for which fitting tolerance is not so critical, such as moulded footwear. When a range is graded by the 7mm scale it is proposed to mark increases in size by alternate increments of 7 mm and 8 mm, for example, 240, 247, 255, 262, 270.

monk shoe - a shoe fastened at the instep by a broad strap with buckle towards the outer side.

mule - a slipper or shoe without quarters, held on the foot by the forepart only.

mulllng - part of the making process. Uppers are warmed and damped by steam to make them more pliable and easier to last.


NAMSR - National Association of Multiple Shoe Repairers.

nature-form shoe - a shoe with straight inside edge, low heel and adequate width for joint and toes, designed to be as close as possible in shape to the natural foot.

Neoprene - trade name used by Du Pont for the synthetic rubber, polychloroprene, developed in their laboratories in 1931. Widely used as an adhesive in shoemaking and in soling compositions.

non-woven material/non-woven fabric - sheet material comprising fibres felted or bonded together, or interwoven by the needle-loom'process. Widely used as a substrate for coated materials and in poromerics, and as a reinforcement for shoe uppers.

non-woven Insole material - made from random laid synthetic fibres and bonded with a small proportion of synthetic rubber or other polymeric materials.

nubuck - stout hide leather, buffed on the grain side to give a velvety surface.

nylon tape - used for reinforcing lines and points of weaknesses, particularly straps and top-lines.


onychogryphosis - gross over development of the nail, usually of the big toe, caused by trauma or infection. Growth of the nail from the proximal aspect of the nail bed is accelerated in this condition, causing the nail to grow upwards and forward, producing the characteristic ram's horn appearance. It is common in elderly and bedridden patients. The chiropodist has equipment for reducing the nail overgrowth.

oxford shoe - a man's style with closed front, that is with the quarters stitched under the vamp. (Compare derby.) The style above is an oxford full brogue.


parchment - translucent or opaque dry untanned skin or hide with an even surface intended, for example, for writing of bookbinding.

paris points - the system of shoe size measurement common over most of the continent of europe. There are three paris points of two centimetres, so that one is equal to two-thirds of a centimetre. The size scale starts at zero.

patent leather - leather which has been given a shiny finish. Originally this was applied by a linseed oil based dressing, but it is now usually plastic. Note that a patent finish can be applied to leathers of widely differing qualities, so that it can vary from light and supple to heavy and rigid.

pearllsed - leather finish giving a lustrous appearance, similar to the appearance of a pearl.

permeabillty - the ability of a material to transmit water or water vapour through its thickness. The comfort of a leather shoe is due in part to this property of leather.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) - any product designed to be worn or held to provide protection,

pes arcuatus - see pes cavus.

pes cavus - a foot deformity characterised by a greater than normal degree of arching of the foot. Various degrees of the condition may be known as claw foot, hollow foot, pes arcuatus) and talipes plantaris. In the normal foot the degree of arching varies greatly. In minor cases of pes cavus chiropodists fit metatarsal pads to raise the anterior metatarsal region. More severe conditions may need surgery.

pes planus - see flat foot.

petrol patent - a black patent leather which is finished to give a subtle multi- coloured, prismatic effect resembling petrol split onto a wet surface.

pH - a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous medium, based on the hydrogen ion concentration. Pure water is 7. A pH below 7 indicates acidity. A pH above 7 indicates alkalinity.

phalanges - the toe bones, two in the big toe and three in each of the others.

pigment finish - a leather finish containing fine particles of pigment. In some cases this amounts to painting the leather, as opposed to dying it.

piping (of uppers) - upper decoration formed by placing string under material, and stitching along it, giving a raised strip.

piping (of leathers) - tendency for surface to crease when flexed.

pitch - the angle at the joint between the sole. and the ground. It should be greater on -high heeled shoes than low. Incorrect pitch is often a sign that a heel which is the wrong height for the last has been used.

plantar - the lower surface of the foot. Sometimes used to describe the insole.

plantar flex - a foot movement. To flex the foot downward so that the forefoot moves further away from the leg.

plastic upper materials - in ever-increasing use, and have undergone considerable advances in recent years. The two main

Materials used are PVC and PU, both laminated to a textile backer. The best PUs have the feel of leather and their surfaces are finished to give the look of fine leathers. While not necessarily cheaper than leather, they save labour in the factory and are more adaptable to mass production methods due to their homogeneity. In some cases they are hard to distinguish visually from leather, clues being a tendency for the stitches to sink into the material, and a reluctance on the part of designers to leave edges raw. They hold their colour better than leather. Disadvantages are their non- permeability, which can cause hot and odourous feet, and a tendency to crack after extensive wear. They also do not keep their shape as well as leather.

plasticiser - a chemical component included in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to make it flexible for use in soling, for example. The lower cost platicisers have an oily character. They tend to migrate, which causes adhesion problems and changes in the character of the soling. Non-oily plasticisers, fully compatible with PVC, have been introduced to improve quality.

platform - an extra component inserted between the insole and the outsole to add height to the wearer, or to give a chunky look to shoe design. The heel height has to be increased to accommodate the extra height. Platforms are made of various plastics, cork grain or even wood. In some cases they are moulded in one piece with outsole and heel.

pleating - folding of upper leather to give a gathered effect. It is regular, as opposed to ruching, which is random.

polyamide - a class of plastic materials of which nylon is the representative example. Used for woven materials and hot melt adhesives.

polyester - a plastic material much used of thread, alone or blended with cotton for fabrics, and for hot melt adhesives.

polymer - a chain or other co-ordination of single molecules of a chemical compound.

monomer polystyrene - a polymer of the monomer styrene. A rigid plastic much used for plastic heels.

polyurethane (PU) - synthetic soling material. Expanded PU is produced by mixing two chemicals which combine inside the mould to produce polyurethane foam. As little heat or pressure is involved the moulds are relatively cheap and easy to produce, allowing relatively short runs. It is flexible for use in bottom units which are soft and light, wear well and resist slip. There is a rigid version which is used for platforms.

Polyurethane (PU) upper material - thin sheet of expanded PU with a fabric backer. Usually used in its lighter weights for women's dress shoes as it has the appearance and even the feel of a good leather at a lower price.

polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - a synthetic plastic widely used for soling and coated upper materials, either dense or microcellular.

poromeric - a word coined by Du Pont and offered as a generic term.

Porvair - a synthetic upper material made of microcellular polyurethane with no fibrous base layer. It has a finish cost simulating the grain of leather. This unique poromeric was invented and developed in the UK and is still being used in the UK and overseas. A thin layer of Porvair is used by tanners to combine with leather splits to make a tough breathable upper material.

POS - Point of Sale pre-finishing. Most soles today are finished before attaching to the shoe, but some are only finished after attachment. Welted soles, for instance, cannot be pre-finished.

pre-selection - a designers' exhibition held before the commencement of the buying season, when buyers and manufacturers can meet designers and consider and exchange new ideas.

pret-a-porter - ready to wear.

Process Control - a means of ensuring that the finished product complies with a required standard.

puff - see toepuff.

product liability - the area of the law that deals with product safety and the legal liability resulting from the supply of unsafe goods.

pump - light low-heel court shoe.

PVC-coated fabric - used to denote an upper material made of PVC with a fabric backer. Generally heavier than PU and therefore used for heavier shoes. It is popular for flow-moulded uppers.

pyroxylin cement - cellulose cement. Solubilised cellulose held in suspension in a solvent, used as a sole cement.

python - large snake whose leather bears a distinctive and attractive marking which shows through after drying. It is used for making shoes, or more commonly on account of its high cost, for insets and trims. As the size of the scales and the markings vary across the skin, care must be taken in clicking to match the pieces used. Python, in common with most other reptiles, tears easily, and it should therefore be backed. It is not unknown for shoes sold as Python to be actually made from watersnakes.


Quality Assurance - an effective quality assurance system is intended top ensure that the goods produced are of saleable quality, are fit for their intended purpose and offer value for money.

quarters - the two portions of the shoe which cover the back of the foot. Usually they are joined at the back seam, and are reinforced by the stiffener.

quartertlp - a segment of a rubber or malleable iron built into a leather heel top- piece at the back, off center towards the outer edge where greatest wear occurs.

Quick Response (QR) - an approach to manufacturing which is aimed at shortening the pipeline from the initial product design concepts and receipt of orders right through to delivery to the customer. Emphasis is given to stream-lining all activities, minimizing work-in-progress and reducing throughout times. It is similar to JIT manufacturing and often employs modular manufacturing systems too.


ram's horn nail - see onychogryphosis.

rand - a strip of leather, or sometimes rubber composition, cemented to the margin of the sole projecting beyond the feather line, with decorative notching or bold stitching to simulate a welted construction.

reactlon moulding - a method of moulding sole units, direct-moulded sole or other articles in which the moulding pressure is developed by the chemical reaction of the components which combine in the mould to form the moulding material. Microcellular polyurethane is moulded in this way.

resin - an indefinite term broadly used to include synthetic plastic materials produced by polymerisation. Naturally occurring polymers such as shellac and rosin, and chemically modified polymers such as those derived from cellulose are not classed as resins. The term is in common use to denote resin rubber soling material.

resln-mlx - the mixture of polyester or polyether chemicals, blowing agent, catalyst system and other ancillary compounds forming one of the two streams which come together in a moulding machine to produce polyurethane (PU). The other stream is the di-isocyanate.

resin-rubber - a synthetic rubber soling material with some superficial resemblance to leather in appearance, finish and feel underfoot. It is a copolymer of styrene and butadiene, designated in brief, SBR.

ridlng boot - pull-on knee-high close-leg boot used for riding. Heel is low, Quality varies from bespoke leather to plastic moulded. Term also used to denote fashion boot made to resemble it.

rink systems - a name often used in the shoe industry to describe modular manufacturing systems, particularly when applied to lasting and bottom activities.

rub-off finish - a secondary layer of finishing material applied to upper leather designed to be selectively rubbed off during shoe finishing to reveal the tighter primary finish, giving the shoe a hand- made individual look.

ruchlng - random pleating of upper material.


safety boots and shoes - footwear with a built-in steel toe cap designed to prevent crushing damage to the toes. Safety boots may have, in addition, a non-corrodible steel mid-sole to prevent penetration by nails, for example, when the wearer is working on building sites. A recent development has been shoes with an internal steel cap, qualifying as safety shoes but of fine leathers such as suede giving them the appearance of good grade walking or town shoes.

Safety toe-caps - a protective toe cap fitted to safety footwear.

sandal - a simple type of shoe construction in which the sole is held on the foot by an open-work upper of strips of material.

SBR - see styrene-butadiene rubber.

SATRA - Shoe and Allied Trades Research Association, now known as the Satra Technology Center. It is an international center of shoe research, with headquarters and laboratories at Kettering.

SATRASUMM - industry standard system for measuring shoe patterns and upper materials to produce cutting allowances.

scanning electron microscope - a microscope which sues a beam of electrons instead of light to transmit the image. The beam, focused by scanning coils, passes progressively over the sample in a pattern of closely spaced lines rather like the raster system of a television tube. The output is fed to scanning coils of a cathode ray tube, producing the visual image.

seat - the part of the shoe immediately below the heel of the foot.

seat wheeling - a decorative row of closely spaced indentations round the top of the heel just below the feather line.

seg - metal stud attached to sole to protect it from wear.

semi-brogue - brogue decorated only on toecap and facings for city wear.

semi-chrome leather - leather which has been tanned with vegetable tannin and then re-tanned with chromium salts.

setting - a process of moistening and then drying by heat by which the lasted upper is fixed to the shape of the last in a few minutes so that the last can be released for further use immediately the sole is put on. Synthetic uppers are heat-set without a previous moistening or mulling stage as it is called.

sewn-In sock - see slip lasted.

sewn seat - in a welted shoe, one in which the welt is continued round the heel.

SHALTA - Skin, Hide and Leather Traders Association.

shank - a strip of steel, fibre, wood or leather, inserted between the outsole and the insole at the waist to maintain the curvature of the sole and keep the heel from going under. If it is badly inserted it will click.

shearllng - sheepskin with the wool on, used for slipper and sometimes boot linings. There are simulated synthetic materials of this kind for low cost foot-wear. These must not be described as shearling.

shoe care - covers everything for the care of footwear from polishes, shoe trees and insocks.

shoe tree - wooden or plastic device inserted in shoes when not being worn to help them keep their shape. The shoe equivalent of a cost hanger.

shover - removable piece of leather or other material attached to a last to add girth at that point only.

side leather - leather made from half of a hide obtained by dividing the hide along the line of the backbone. As side leather is usually obtained from larger and older animals, it tends to be heavy.

SIG - Winter Sports Exhibition. Grenoble, France.

silicon - non-metallic element known in two allotropic forms. A very pure grown crystalline form is cut into very thin slices for the manufacture of silicon chips. Electrically it is a semi-conductor. Distinguished from silicone.

silicone - a chemical compound, analogous to a hydrocarbon, having a central chain of atoms of silicon, instead of carbon, in the molecule. Rubbers, oils and greases are possible types of silicones, each having special properties of great value in industry. Silicone rubber, when used in certain shoemaking processes, retains its properties when subjected, in its application in a machine, to temperatures up to 300"C. It is stable over a very wide temperature range, down to -90'C. Not to be confused with silicon.

SIMAC - Shoemaking and Tanning Machinery Fair, Milan, Italy.

sizes - it should be remembered that there are two different size measurements. (1) foot length and (2) last or internal shoe length. The differences between lasts are quite large and it is best to rely on the skill of a qualified shoe fitter rather than to rely totally on the information from a size-stick or measuring device. These should be considered as a useful first indication. See also paris points and mondopoint. Further complication arises when shoes made on European lasts are imported into the UK. English sizes stamped on the shoes can never be accurate because English size interval of one third of an inch is different from the Paris Point increment of 0.66 cm; thus sizes get out of step.

skl boot - boot designed to be attached to ski. Modern ones are moulded in PVC.

skl front - tie shoe with apron front which is continued to form a bellow tongue. The sides of the vamp are usually cut in one piece with the quarters.

sklve - operation in manufacture where edges of leather are trimmed down so that the edge is thinner than the body of the leather, thus reducing the thickness of seams.

sklver - split leather used for linings and socks.

sllng back - shoe with strap passing from forepart round the hollow of the ankle, usually secured by a buckle.

slip lasted (sometimes called force lasted or tag lasted) - a simple method of making light casuals or slippers. The upper is stitched to a sock, which serves as an insole. The last is then forced in so that an outsole can be attached. A variant is the Californian which has a platform cover and platform.

SLTC - Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists.

slush moulded - a method of moulding boots from PVC which reproduces exactly the appearance of the original leather boot from which the mould is made. As there are no seams the boot is waterproof. It is usually warm-lined, and is popular for winter wear. It tends to be rather heavy compared to its leather equivalent.

sock or Insock - a cover of leather or synthetic material cemented to the insole after the shoe is made to hide tacks or stitches and present a clean, even appearance. As it is highly visible it is usually adorned with a brand name and other marketing information.

softee leather - a general term for very soft and flexible upper leather.

sole attaching - attaching sole to upper of shoe.

solvent - a substance, usually liquid, which can dissolve other substances. Water is an important solvent but the term is most generally applied to chemical compounds, such as acetone, white spirit, MEK, indus- trial methylated spirit, and many others.

spanish heel - a high, narrow, tapered heel with moderately small toppiece, rather similar to cuban heel but more incurved.

split - if a hide or skin skiver is split over its whole area into two or more layers, each is called a split. The grain split and the flesh split are the most common but in heavy hides there may also be a middle split.

SPOGA - Sports Goods Exhibition, Cologne, West Germany.

sponge rubber - see microcellular rubber.

sprue - occurs in moulded or volcanised footwear. Excess rubber or plastic standing proud where mould is joined. Has to be trimmed off.

stlffener - a shaped and moulded component, usually of fibreboard, leatherboard or impregnated fabric, placed between the lining and upper material at the back of the shoe to improve shape retention of the quarters.

stiletto heel - a fashion heel having a top- piece 1cm or less across. It is unsafe to wear and fragile in wear, but enhances the allure of the wearer, which is the reason for its popularity. It is important to be sure the heel is strongly attached, and that the top-piece is properly secured. The thinnest heels should have a metal reinforcement running from the top-piece to at least half the height of the heel.

stltching machine, automatic - the machines are loaded with work by the operator who then starts the machine-cycle. The cycle is completed automatically - the operator has no control over the path and a limited control over the speed of stitching.

straights - shoes designed without distinction of right and left so that each can be used on either foot.

stretcher - device for stretching uppers after manufacture. Used for small local adjustments to help fit.

string lasting - a very old process for making light shoes which has been revived in recent years for conventional walking and casual shoes. It features a heavy gauge drawstring sewn round the margin of the flat upper. The upper and an insole are placed over the last, which is mounted on a jack post, and the operator hauls the upper closely to the last by pulling on the ends of the drawstring. The process is additionally interesting for today's conditions because the last used can be the moulding last of an injection moulding machine, allowing the sole to be moulded-on without transferring the work to another operator.

string lasting - type of lasting carried out by means of two strings attached to the inside lower edge of the upper by a zig zag seam one for the forepart and one of the backpart and enabling the upper to be gathered and fastened over the insole.

styrene - a liquid hydrocarbon compound, transformed to a rigid solid thermoplastic of identical chemical composition by polymerization. See polymer.

styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) - a synthetic rubber introduced into the UK about 1950 by the Goodyear Tyre and Rubber Co. under the trade name Neolite. It was sold in sheet form and die cut to sole shapes for adhesive attachment. Its special properties were that it had tlexibility and adequate wear resistance in thin substances, and felt and behaved underfoot much like leather, not like rubber. It is now so widely known and used that soling of this kind is called simply, resin-rubber.

suede - leather finished with a nap surface by carefully controlled abrasion. There are many synthetic materials simulating suede. These must never be described as suede.

suedette, suedene - two generic terms for imitation suede.


tab - any small piece of leather or other material protruding from the vamp. Can before ornamentation, or to bear a brand name or eyelet, or to help pull the shoe on.

talipes plantaris - see pes cavus.

thermoplastic - a plastic material which can be repeatedly softened and remoulded by heat, while retaining the moulded form in ambient temperatures. See thermosetting plastics.

thermoplastlc rubber - a synthetic rubber related to resin-rubber but which can be fused by heat and therefore processed into soles by injection moulding. See resin-rubber.

thermosetting plastics - plastics which retain permanently their heat-moulded form and are not softened by re-heating. See thermoplastic.

tle shoe - general name for any shoe held onto the foot by lacing.

toe post - strip of leather on a sandal separating the first and second toes, holding sandal on foot either by means of a loop round the big toe or by straps to the waist. Design originated in India.

toe puff - material inserted between outer and lining at toe to help it keep its shape. On light fashion shoes plastic is ironed onto the outer, but in heavier shoes a fibre puff is inserted.

toe spring - the upward curvature or angle of the sole forepart, relative to ground level, when the shoe is on a level surface. It is related to the designed stiffness of the sole and the height of the heel. The more rigid the sole, the greater the toe spring that has to be provided. Toe spring enables the wearer to proceed by a forward rolling action at the joint. Without it the foot would be heavily stressed in an unavailing attempt to bend the sole, leading to tendon strain and deformation of the long arch.

tongue - an extension of the vamp over the instep, below the eyelet facings. It covers what would otherwise be a gap between the facings and protects the instep from lines of pressure from the laces. A bellows tongue is one cut about double the width of an ordinary tongue, the sides being folded over the center area and stitched to the tabs. This make. the tab opening waterproof. Boots so made are used for fishing and other sports where water is a hazard.

top line - the edge of the upper round the< throat of the shoe or boot. Usually finished by binding or other means.

top line reinforcement - in court shoes the top line is subject to considerable strain, and it should be reinforced by a nylon tape under the binding to prevent splitting and bursting.

top-line tapes - tapes used for reinforcing top-line of the shoe.

top-plece or top lift - the layer of leather of a heel which touches the ground. On leather built heels this needs to be of best bend leather, but more commonly synthetic materials are used, as this part of the shoe is subject to the maximum wear. On stiletto heels moulded nylon is commonly used, an it is important that the top-piece is very securely attached to the body of the heel.

Total Quality Management (TQM) - a management philosophy that is aimed at maximum effectiveness and efficiency within an organisation by putting in place processes and systems to ensure that every aspect of its activity is aligned to satisfy customer needs and ensure that every aspect of its activity is aligned to satisfy customer needs and all other objectives without waste of effort and using, the full potential of every person in the organisation. It recognises that customer satisfaction, health, safety, environmental considerations and business objectives arc mutually dependent. Central to the philosophy is the concept of striving for continuous improvement and focusing on fault prevention rather than detection.

touch and close fasteners - fasteners that cling together on contact, often suing hook and loop tapes, and are relatively easily separated.

training courses - retail staff training Diploma Courses are staged by The Leather Institute. Details from: The Training Officer, British Leather Confederation, Leather Trade House, King Park Road, Moulton Park Northampton NN3 1JD (0604 494131).

trainlng shoe or trainer - shoe designed originally for sports training but both the shoe and the term have come into general use. Usually has a fabric upper with a leather trim in a lace up style. Sole is generally either moulded PVC or cemented EVA. It is common for the manufacturers' brand name or emblem to be prominent in the design, and this is a major selling point

trichlorethylene - an excellent solvent for grease, wax and rubber, sometimes used for cleaning shoe uppers in the factory. It i. highly toxic but non-flammable. Ventilation in the working area is vitally important.

turnshoe - a shoe made inside-out. The reversed upper is sewn to the reversed sole and the whole is then turned inside out and re-lasted. It has been mostly replaced by the cemented method but is still used for slippers and babies' shoes.


UITIC - the Union International des Technicians de Industrie de la Chaussure, The International Union of Shoe Industry Technicians. 20 national footwear manufacturers' associations are members. Conferences are held every two years.

ultrasonics - the study and application of pressure waves which are of the same nature as sound waves but are inaudible because they are above the audible limit of about 20,000 vibrations per minute. Electronic technology has made possible the generation of high power vibrations at these high frequencies which can be used for welding plastic items together without heat. Note that these vibrations can only be transmitted through matter of some kind, such as metal or other solid. See magnetostriction, ultrasonic heel attaching.

ultrasonlc heel attaching - a method of attaching plastic heels developed by BUSM Co. It uses a strip steel staple shaped to bridge the shank, having four pointed legs. The staple is placed in a horn which is vibrated at ultrasonic frequency, causing the staple legs to char through the seat fibre board and fuse into the heel in less than a second, locking the shank, insole and heel firmly together.

underfoot comfort - the sue of pressure mapping technology for studying footwear characteristics which can influence how comfortable a shoe feels to the wearer.

United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) - Official Body responsible for providing independent accreditation of certification bodies.

UNIDO - United National Industrial Development Organisation.

unit sole or unit bottom - sole or bottom unit moulded form plastics material, so that the entire bottom can be attached to shoe in one operation. As units often incorporate fake welts, rands, foxing, etc. the unit has to be designed to conform to the last. Some units are moulded to include leather soles.

upper - portion of shoe which covers the upper surface of the foot. It can be made of a variety of materials, commonly, leather, plastics or fabric.

upper leather - light supple leather which can be lasted over an upper. This usually comes form younger animals, like calf or kid, or is the result of splitting the hide of an older beast. Upper leather can be made from the skin of almost any animal,

including reptiles and birds. Cows, goats and sheep are the commonest sources. The sue of the hides of certain wild animals, such as seals elephants, rhinos is now severely restricted or banned altogether to conserve the species. There are severe penalties for illegal dealing in such hides.

USDAW - Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers.


vamp - the part of the upper between the toe cap and the quarters, including the toe in the case of capless styles.

vegetable tannage - tanning with vegetable tannins. The other main group of tanning agents are mineral salts.

velcro - fastening system in which a strip of material composed of very small plastic hoods engages with an open weave or looped material. As it is infinitely variable, it is used for securing bars. It can also be used for attaching trims. This enables alternative trims to be used on one shoe.

veldtschoen - construction in which the lasted upper is turned outwards under the welt, this forming a very durable and waterproof bond.

veldt - similar construction, but with no welt. Less durable but flexible and comfortable. Commonly used for chukka boots.

verruca, verruca pedis - the plantar wart. This fairly common affliction on the sole of the foot has some affinity to the ordinary cutaneous wart except that it has a thick conified outer layer and most of it is pushed into the dermis by the pressure to which it is exposed. It is contagious and can be transmitted by walking on the floor without foot covering or a swimming bath, for example, or a school dormitory, or by wearing the shoes or socks of someone who is a sufferer. Chiropodists use a number of curing methods including treatment with glacial acetic acid, monochlor- or trichlor-acetic acid. One of the latest treatments is by charring by a laser. The patient can resume walking almost immediately after treatment. Vascula corns, occurring most frequently in those with moist skin, have sometimes been described as verrucae in the stage of involution.

vinyl - commonly used synonym for PVC. More accurately, the vinyls are a class of chemical compounds of which PVC is the representative one used in footwear.

virtual reality - advanced computer based 3-D graphics system with which the user can interact.

vulcanized construction - construction in which rubber pellets are heated in a mould to form the bottom or a string lasted shoe. This construction is cheap and produces a flexible comfortable product, but it can only be used on rough materials like suede or fabric. It is not suitable for smooth leathers.

vulcanlzed rubber - raw rubber treated by milling with a sulphur and heat to allow for moulding and to increase durability and inhibit deterioration.


washable leather - leather that can be washed under normal washing conditions and which has colour fastness, flexibility and dimensional stability to an acceptable standard under these conditions.

water resistant leather - leather resistant to the penetration of water, usually chrome tanned or combination tanned, originally heavily greased but nowadays other water repelling agents may be used.

wear returns - product returned to the supplier as a result of its performance in wear being unsatisfactory.

wedge heel - a heel extended under the waist to the forepart, giving a flat surface in contact with the ground through-out. Often combined with a platform. See scooped wedge.

welted footwear - a traditional method of producing footwear. The sole is stitched to a welt, a strip of leather running around the feather of the shoe, which is also stitched to the upper. One of the more complex constructions which is now only used for high quality footwear.

wellington - a calf length boot, of rubber or plastic, for protective war in conditions of snow, heavy rain, etc. A shorter version, extending a few inches above the ankle, is called a half-Wellington. The original wellington boot was worn by the Duke of the same name and was made of leather.

welt - strip of leather sewn onto insole to which insole is sewn. Shoes made by the welted construction can be easily resoled by removing the sole and restitching a fresh one as long as the welt lasts. A welt should not be confused with a rand, which looks the same but is merely decorative or a middle sole which has the same appearance but is not so flexible.

whale oil - the use of whale oil in shoe manufacture is now banned. It used to be used to make leather more supple.

whole cut shoe - a shoe with the upper cut in one piece, closed by seaming at the back of the quarters.

width fittings - there are various systems for defining width. The most commonly used in this country go from AAA to EEE, very narrow to very broad, with B being the average in women's shoes, A to G in children's' and D to G (E being average) in men's. Sometimes numbers 5 to 8 are used form men's. The retailer would be ill advised to rely on this nomenclature, as it appears to differ from factory to factory, to the point where some factories refuse to use it for fear of confusing their customers.


AMT- Fortgeschrittene Erzeugungs-Technologie - Einbezogene Verwendung von CAD/CAM und Robotern, um Produkte billiger und effizienter produzieren zu können. 

acrylonitrile- eine zähe starre Plastik. Benutze für die Herstellung von plastischen Stöckeln. 

albert- Stil eines Slippers für Männer mit einer Zunge als Vergrößerung über den Fußrücken. 

Alkohol - Lösungsmittel zur Reinigung. Feuergefährlich und giftig.

Anilin-Leder Mit einem Anilin-Farbstoff gefärbtes Leder, das ein natürliches Aussehen gibt. 

Antique – Endbearbeitung des Oberleders, das durch Besprayung ausgesuchter Zonen mit dunkleren und kontrastreichen Farben den Eindruck von Alter vermittelt.   

Anti-static - Schuh mit metallischen Ableitern in der Sohle,  sicherzustellen, dass Reibungselektrizität sicher geerdet ist, um Entstehung von Funken in Zonen zu vermeiden, wo feuergefährliche Gase gegenwärtige sind oder abrupte elektrische Entladung Schaden verursachen könnte. 

Apres ski - Schuhe oder andere Kleidungsartikel, die den Eindruck erwecken, sie würden nach einem Skiausflug getragen. 

Apron front - flache Lasche, die über die Seite des Vorschuhes gelegt wird. 

Arch – Teil der Sohle, die den Boden nicht berührt. Allgemein benutzt als Einlegesohle. 

Arch support – Unterstützung und Verstärkung der Einlegesohle oder ähnlicher Verstärkungen, die in den Schuh gelegt werden können. 

Aromatlc amines - eine Reihe von Verbindungen, die von Azo-Farbstoffen freigesetzt werden können und ähnliche krebserregende physiologische Eigenschaften haben können.

Azo dyestuffs – Eine Serie von hellen Azo-Farbstoffen mit der generellen Struktur Ar-N-N-Ar, der in einer Anzahl von Ländern wegen ihrer krebserregenden physiologischen Eigenschaften verboten sind.


backing, or backer – unterstützendes Material, das in ein schwaches Material laminiert wird, um ihm Stärke zu geben und um ihm zu helfen, sich aufzurichten.

bagged top - eine Methode des Vernähens des Oberleders, so dass keine Stiche gesehen werden können und ein Gefühl eines sehr weichen Aussehens gibt.

ball – Schwellung an der Innenseite des Fusses, wo der grosse Zeh and den Fussballen grenzt. Der am meisten bewegte Teil des Fusses und des Schuhs und daher wichtig für die Anprobe eines Schuhes.

ballerina – Flacher Absatz (nicht mehr al seine Einlage), der das Aussehen eines Ballettschuhs vermitteln soll.

ballet shoe - ein sehr leichter Typ eines Schuhs ohne Absatz aus einem samtartigen oder anderem Material für Ballett oder Tanz. Er wird mit Bändern am Fuss befestigt, die beidseitig über  Fußrücken gehen. Es gibt zwei Typen: einen weichen für allgemeinen Ballett-Tanz und einen harten (blockierte Zehen) für Tanzen auf den Zehenspitzen, (das heißt, auf der Spitze der großen Zehe).

bar shoe – Ein Schuh, der über den Fuss gehenden Stege gehalten wird. Es kann irgendeine Anzahl von Stegen in Frage kommen, und sie können auf verschiedene Art und Weise angebracht werden. Z.B T-Stege.

bark tanned – Leer, das mit Tannine gegerbt wird, das sich in der Rinde von Bäumen befindet. Das bearbeitete Leder befindet sich in Kontakt  mit der rohen Rinde.

baseline – Letztes Design mit Grundmassen, um die Anpassung von Entwürfen und die Herstellung zu erleichtern.

beading - eine röhrenförmige Dekoration, normalerweise zwischen Oberleder und Sohle, aber manchmal auf dem Oberleder.

beeswax – wird aus Bienenwaben hergestellt. Bestandteil einiger Schuhcremes. Wird auch bei der Herstellung handgemachter Ledersohlen verwendet.

bellows tongue – Zunge in einem Schnürschuh.

bend – Sohlenleder, hergestellt aus dem hinteren Teil einer Vieh-Haut, nach Entfernung von Bauch und Schulter am Rückgrat geteilt.

benzene-benzol – aus Kohle und Teer hergestelltes Lösungsmittel. Gut , um Fett und Gummi aufzulösen. Wird auch zu Herstellung von Gummilösung und zum Reinigen von Schuhoberleder verwertet.. Toxisch und leicht entflammbar. Eine gute Ventilation im Arbeitsbereich ist notwendig. Siehe Benzin.

benzine – Wird bei der Raffination von Erdöl gewonnen. Für Reinigungszwecke und Gummilösung benutz. Weniger toxisch als Benzol, aber leicht entflammbar. Eine gute Ventilation im Arbeitsbereich ist notwendig.

bespoke – Nach Mass angefertigtes Schuhwerk höchster Spezifikationen. In den meisten Fällen wird ein Listen hergestellt, der zum Fuss des Kunden passt, und beim Schuhmacher verbleibt.

BFA - British Footwear Association.

binding – Band oder Lederstreifen, der die runden Endstücke abdeckt, und Aussenleder und Futter zusammenhält, und dem Schuh ein  gutes und dauerhaftes Aussehen verleiht.

blake sewn – eine Methode der Schuhherstellung, bei der  die Sohle durch eine einfache durch die Innensohle und das Oberleder gehende Naht mit dem Oberleder und der Innensohle verbunden wird. Es wird keine Einfassung benutzt.

BLC - British Leather Confederation.

blind eyelets – Ösen, die auf das Innenleder gestanzt werden, - nur kleine gestanzte Löcher sind auf den Streifen zu sehen.

block co-polymer – chemische Verbindung aus zwei Komponente, die angeblich im Molekül zwei Blöcke bilden, von denen jeder auf physische Änderungen anders eragiert und dem Verbund verschiedene Qualitäten gibt, z.B. thermoplastisch, wenn erwärmt, was das Co-Polymer alleine nicht sein würde.

boarding – Prozess einer Oberlederbearbeitung, um ihm ein verschiedenes  las das natürliche Aussehen zu geben. Gewöhnlich an Seiten angewendet, um es wie Kalbsleder oder gar wie Ziegenleder  aussehen zu lassen.

 bones of the foot – es ist für den Schuhanpasser nicht  notwendig, aber interessant, die Anatomie des Fusses in Detail zu studieren. Es ist für ihn wichtig zu wissen, wie sich die Knochen bewegen und wie sie miteinander in Zusammenhang stehen, und was die Begrenzungen der Bewegungen untereinander sind. Bei Männerschuhen mit hoher Spannrandhöhe ist es manchmal möglich, das der obere Teil schmerzhaft auf den äusserebn Fußknöchel drückt, wenn das Bein im Verhältnis zum Fuss seitlich nach aussen angewinkelt.

bootee – ein Stil bei Frauenschuhen, bei der das Oberleder gerade über den Knöchel reicht. Entworfen für Fashion und Komfort, mit weichem Oberleder und flexiblem Material. Ein ähnlicher Stil, mit mittlerem Reissverschluss, ist bei gefütterten Hausschuhen für Männer beliebt.

box calf – Chromgegerbtes Kalbsleder, in England Schwarz,  - andere Farben werden als Kalbsleder beschrieben.

Brannock device – ein Fussmessgerät mit einer Schiebe, um die Fusslänge und einer andere, um die den Abstand vom Fussballen zum Absatz zu messen. Dieses Mass, zusammen mit der Fusslänge, bestimmt die Schuhgrösse. Das Gerät ermittelt auch die angebrachte Breite. Das Brannock ist in den USA sehr verbreitet, woe s auch herkommt..

BRMA - British Rubber Manufacturers' Association.

brogue shoe – ein geschlossener Schnürschuh, bei dem das Oberleder an den Seiten mehrere veröste Löcher hat. Durch die ausgestanzten Löcher wird oft das Aussehen eines Golfschuhes erreicht.

brushed pigskin – Schweineleder mit einer sichtbaren Oberfläche, dei Samt ähnelt.

BSAIF - British Sports and Allied Industries Federation.

BSI - British Standards Institution. BTBS - Boot Trade Benevolent Society.

built heel – aus Lagen, Ledereinlagen oder  hergestellter Absatz, wobei die Lagen oder Linien verschiedne Farben haben, die ihm etwas an Fashion verleihen.

bunlon – eine durch Druck oder Reibung über einer Sehne entstandene Entzündung. Meist entstanden durch einen hervorstehenden Mitteknochen des grossen Zehs in Fällen von Ballenzehen.

byte – eine Folge von Bits, z.B. acht, die bei einem Computer al seine Einheit den Speicherinhalt  halten. Es ist die Zahl, die den Speicher eines Computers ausdrückt. Ein 24k Computer z.B. würde einen Speicher von ca 24,000 Bytes haben.


CAD - Computer Unterstütztes Design – ein Schuh wird auf dem Bildschirm eines Computers entworfen und der Entwurf dann an den Speicher weitergegeben. Er kann dann mit Hilfe von Vorlagen verändert. Die Vorlagen können dann entsprechend derv pm Computer geschicken Informationen mit einem Wasser-Laser-Jet geschnitten. Einige Systeme stellen die Entwürfe in 3D dar.

calf – von jungen oder nicht ausgewachsenen Kühen hergestelltes Leder, das ein gewisses Gewicht nicht überschreiten darf. In England beträgt es 16kg. Dieses Masse sind in verschiedenen Ländern abweichend. Häute über 7kg von noch Milch trinkenden Tieren manchmal wird als Kalbfell bezeichnet.

calf side – am Rückgrat geschnittenes Kalbsleder. Kalbsleder ist oft eine beschönigende Beschreibung für Leder eines älteren Tieres, dem das Aussehen von Kalbsleder verliehen wurde.

Californian – eine Methode, bei der das Oberlder und die Sohle an einen Insock genäht wird. Letztere wird dann hineingedrückt. Als Sandalen für Frauen und Kinder für den täglichen Gebrauch üblich. Eine Variante der Slipper.

CAM - Computer Unterstützte Herstellung – Die Daten des Computer CAD’s können  Schneidergeräte, Pressen , Laser, Wasser-Jets, oder mechanische Schneidegeräte und viele andere Geräte und Maschinen kontrollieren: - M.C. Grinder für Formstücke, Nähmaschinen, Aufraugeräte und die neue Generation von Robotern.

cap and counter – Oberlederdesign mit verschiedenen Schuhspitzen und Verkleidungen, normalerweise in verschiedenen Farben. Siehe spectator und co-respondent.

cape – ein sehr weiche Leder für Komfortschuhe. Es wird auch für Handschuhe benutzt, und wird oft Handschuhleder genannt.

carnauba – eine harte Wachsbeschichtung aus Blättern gewisser brasilianischer Palmen. Ein sehr teures Material für Schuhcremes der oberen Preisklasse, die dem Leder einen lang anhaltenden Glanz verleihen.

CEC – Föderation der Europäischen Schuhhersteller. Die die europäischen Föderationen zusammenfassenden Föderation. Sie versucht die Stellung der Schuhindustrie im Europäischen Parlament zu vertreten, und eine Verbesserung der Industrie in Europa zu erreichen.

cellulose board – Einlagematerial hoher Qualität, - hergestellt aus Alpha Cellulose höchster Qualität mit einem polymerischen Bindemittel. Typische Namen sind Bontex und Texon. (Das Wort Texon bezieht sich jetzt auf BUSM Einlagematerialien.) 

CE Mark – Bezeichnung, um die Übereinstimmung mit einr Anzahl Europäischer Normen anzuzeigen (z.B. Norme für Spielzeug, PPE, usw.)

cement lasted – Methode, bei der das Oberleder mit einem heissen Leim anstelle von Stiften befestigt wird.

cemented construction – Verklebung ds unteren Teils des Oberleders unter Anwendung von Druck und Hitze. Damit fabriziert man einen leichten, flexiblen und ordentlich aussehenden Schuh. Und ist dabei billiger las die traditionellen Methoden. Meistens benutzt bei leichter Bekleidung. Wenn die Verleimung nicht korrekt vorgenommen wird, löst sich die Sohle vom Oberleder.

CFHR - Children's Foot Health Register.

CFI – Kleidungs- und Schuhinstitut. Die Berufsorganisation der Bekleidungs- und Schuhindustrie für Personen. Sie organisiert Konferenzen und lokale Treffen der Berufsgruppen, publiziert ein Magazin und stellt Regeln zur Selbstkontrolle auf, die, wenn sie akzeptiert sind, zur Mitgliedschaft des (ACFI) führen, der professionellen Qualifizierung der Industrie. ACFI wird im Alter von 24 verliehen, danach folgt eine Periode von 2 Jahren in verantwortlicher Position, die (FCFI) Mitgliedschaft wird an die Industrie in Anerkennung einer Thesis für eine besondere Kontribution verliehen.

chappal, or chupleeTyp einer aus Indien stammenden Sandale. Das Oberleder besteht aus zwei Streifen, einer auf jeder Seite des vorderen Schuhs, gekreuzt und am Absatz endend. Sie können mit Hilfe einer hinten angebrachten Schnalle verstellt werden. Ein umgelenkter Gurt auf jeder Seite des Absatzes hält die Streifen relativ zur Sohle in ihrer Position. Auch benutzt bei Sandalen, die durch eine Schlinge über den Zeh am Fuss gehalten werden.

chevette – lLeder aus dünnem Ziegenleder. Für die Herstellung von Handschuhen.



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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